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The selected regions in which we searched VENs had the sub-laminar organization of layer V into both, a superficial (Va) and a deep (Vb) portion. Layer V had the presence of pyramidal cells whose density decreased going deeper (Vb); on the contrary, their soma area increased, which constituted a criterion for its subdivision (Öngür et al., 2003; Buriticá and Pimienta, 2007). Figures 1B, 2B show the distinctive features of layer V, as well as its limits with respect to the inner granular layer (IV) and the multiform layer (VI)...somnolent Definition: Encephalitis lethargica or von Economo disease is an atypical form of 3 What it is Discovery: First described in 1917 by the neurologist Constantin von Economo and the..

Encephalitis lethargica (von Economo disease) Radiopaedia

Coronal sections (50 μm thickness) were obtained using a Lancer Vibratome 1000 series®. As a control of the correct orientation of the tissue during the sectioning process, a section every 2000 μm was stained with toluidine blue, which allowed us to verify the integrity of the tissue and the cellular orientation, that is, the presence of the entire cortex from layer I to the subcortical white matter and the vertical organization of the apical dendrites of the pyramidal neurons. Every 800 μm a section of tissue was collected to be processed by immunohistochemistry with anti-NeuN antibody. We collected between 9 and 12 tissue sections per subject to be analyzed in the present study. The remaining sections were collected for purposes other than those of the present study. von Economo disease的相关资料 The disease was responsible for the deaths of approximately 10,000 former miners between 1990 and 2000, and continues today [3]. Adverse impacts to the environment are another significant cost of..

What are synonyms for Economo von San Serff disease? encephalitis lethargica. (redirected from Economo von San Serff disease) Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Encyclopedia Arteaga, G., Buritica, E., Escobar, M. I., and Pimienta, H. (2015). Human prefrontal layer II interneurons in areas 46, 10 and 24. Colomb. Med. 46, 19–25. doi: 10.25100/cm.v46i1.1682 The EcoCyc database describes the genome, metabolic pathways, and regulatory network of Escherichia coli and provides extensive bioinformatics tools VENs are a recently evolved cell type which may be involved in the fast intuitive assessment of complex situations. As such, they could be part of the circuitry supporting human social networks [11,14]. It has been shown that VENs relay an output of fronto-insular and anterior cingulate cortex to the parts of frontal and temporal cortex associated with theory-of-mind, where fast intuitions are melded with slower, deliberative judgments [8,15]. VENs emerge mainly after birth and increase in number until the age of four years of age and that in autism spectrum disorders VENs fail to develop normally [16,17]. This failure might be partially responsible for the associated social disabilities that result from faulty intuition in autistic people. The presence of VENs in the frontoinsular cortex has been linked to a possible role in the integration of bodily feelings, emotional regulation, and goal-directed behaviors [7,12]. They have also been implicated in fast intuitive evaluation of complex social situations. Studies have reported a decreased number of VENs in neuropsychiatric diseases in which the dimension of social cognition is markedly affected [7,16].Ibegbu, A., Umana, U., Hamman, O., and Adamu, S. (2015). Von economo neurons: a review of the anatomy and functions. J. Exp. Clin. Anat. 14, 126–130. doi: 10.4103/1596-2393.177023

von Economo disease - Wiktionar

Initially, the sections were introduced into a mixture of 0.3% hydrogen peroxide and 30% absolute methanol to prevent the action of the endogenous peroxidase. To avoid adhesion to non-specific antigens, we used normal horse serum diluted 1.5% in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 40 min. The tissue was incubated in anti-NeuN antibody (Anti-NeuN Antibody, clone A60, MAB377 EDM Millipore-Sigma Aldrich, Merck) for 18 h. The primary antibody was diluted in PBS with 0.5% Triton X-100 (1:2500). Then, the sections were incubated in the avidin-biotin HRP complex (Vectastain Elite ABC, PK-6102 Mouse IgG; Vector Laboratories) for 1.5 h. Finally, they were processed in a solution of 4% 3,3′-diaminobenzidine, 2% hydrogen peroxide and 2% nickel in PBS (peroxidase substrate kit, DAB SK-4100; Vector Laboratories) for 5 min. After each treatment, three washes of 5 min each were carried out with PBS. With the tissue already subjected to immunostaining, it was mounted on chrome-lighted glass plates which were then washed with distilled water and dehydrated with graded alcohols and xylols. The tissues were cover-slipped with histological mounting media (Permount mounting media, Fisher Scientific, Thermo Fisher Scientific). As a negative control, tissue sections were processed in the same way previously described except that the primary antibody was omitted. All procedures were carried out at room temperature. Encephalitis lethargica or von Economo disease is an atypical form of encephalitis. Also known as "sleepy sickness" or as "sleeping sickness".. Human Phenotype Ontology, a standardized vocabulary of phenotypic abnormalities encountered in human disease. With unmatched depth it enables clinicians to record and analyse data with.. Van Essen, D. C. (1997). A tension-based theory of morphogenesis and compact wiring in the central nervous system. Nature 385, 313–318. doi: 10.1038/385313a0Butti, C., Santos, M., Uppal, N., and Hof, P. R. (2013). Von Economo neurons: clinical and evolutionary perspectives. Cortex 49, 312–326. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2011.10.004

Von Economo disease definition of von Economo disease by

Cancer is a disease where cells in the body replicate abnormally and cause a mass known as a tumour. Dementia is a progressive disorder that affects the brain's memory capacity and it's overall.. Evrard, H. C., Forro, T., and Logothetis, N. K. (2012). Von Economo Neurons in the anterior insula of the Macaque monkey. Neuron 74, 482–489. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.03.003Regions of the brain containing Von Economo neurons (VENs). (a) A lateral view of the brain, with fronto-insular cortex (FI) shown in red. (b) A medial view of the brain, with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) shown in red [10].

VENs are defined by their thin, elongated cell body and long dendrites projecting from the apical and basal ends [11]. These distinctive neurons are mostly present in anterior cingulate and fronto-insular cortex, with particularly high densities in cetaceans, elephants and hominoid primates mainly humans and apes [8,12]. This distribution suggests that VENs contribute to specializations of neural circuits in species that share both large brain size and complex social cognition, possibly representing an adaptation to rapidly relay socially-relevant information over long distances across the brain [13]. Recent evidence indicates that unique patterns of protein expression may also characterize VENs, particularly involving molecules that are known to regulate gut and immune function [13,14]. Some virus-caused diseases include the common cold, AIDS, herpes, and chickenpox. Viral infections require either vaccinations to prevent them in the first place—like with vaccinations against polio or.. Encephalitis lethargica (von Economo's encephalitis), pandemic from 1917 to 1926, opened a window on Results: Parkinson disease patients were very slow and hypokinetic during finger tapping, with..

Baron Constantin von Economo (1876– 1931) | Download

Immunohistochemical Processing

Economo, C. von, 1917/18, Die Encephalitis Lethargica ,Deuticke, Vienna.Google Scholar. Hendrick, I., 1928, Encephalitis lethargica and the interpretation of mental disease, Am Constantin Freiherr von Economo (21 August 1876 - 21 October 1931) was an Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist of Romanian origin and Greek descent. He is mostly known for his discovery of encephalitis lethargica and his atlas of cytoarchitectonics of the cerebral cortex Von Economo's disease. Other Names: Epidemic encephalitis Encephalitis lethargica Sleepy sickness Von Economo viral encephalitis Lethargic encephalitis Sleeping sickenss The opinions expressed in all articles published here are those of the specific author(s), and do not necessarily reflect the views of Dove Medical Press Ltd or any of its employees.

ECONOMO-CRUCHET DISEASE. Italian. Encefalite letargica. English. Postenceph economo type parkinsonism. Italian. Encefalite letargica di Von Economo Study finds human von Economo neurons' closest cellular cousins and captures first electrical recordings from these large spindle-shaped brain cells Economo's disease Definition: an African disease caused by infection with protozoans of the genus Trypanosoma,... | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und Beispiele Considering the search pattern of the VENs described in the “Materials and Methods section” (observation along sublayer Vb) as well as the morphological characteristics described in previous studies, in the present study we report for the first time the presence of VENs in sublayer Vb on the medial surface of the human frontopolar cortex (BA10; see Figures 2A–C). VENs were observed in both hemispheres of all the subjects analyzed (see Tables 1, 2); however, these cells were not present in all the tissue sections. In the sections where they were found, VENs were observed on the crest and/or on the walls of the gyrus (see Table 1), being more abundant in the first of these sectors (p < 0.05). The observed VENs exhibit the elongated bodies with a single basal process and an apical process extending symmetrically. The anti-NeuN antibody labeling showed low intensity in the soma, contrasting with the high intensity in the clearly distinguishable nucleus (Figures 2C,D).

Abstract: The selective loss of von Economo neurons has been linked to the behavioral deficits in The present study assesses the von Economo neurons in pathological AD cases clinically diagnosed.. In humans, intense emotion activates the anterior cingulate cortex, as it relays neural signals transmitted from the amygdala, a primary processing center for emotions to the frontal cortex, perhaps by functioning as a sort of lens to focus the complex texture of neural signal interference patterns. The ACC is also active during demanding tasks requiring judgment and discrimination, and when errors are detected by an individual. During difficult task or when experiencing intense love, anger or lust, activation of the ACC is increased. In brain imaging studies, the ACC has specifically been found to be active when mothers hear infants cry, underscoring its role in affording a heightened degree of social sensitivity.Öngür, D., Ferry, A. T., and Price, J. L. (2003). Architectonic subdivision of the human orbital and medial prefrontal cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 460, 425–449. doi: 10.1002/cne.10609Krause, M., Theiss, C., and Brüne, M. (2017). Ultrastructural alterations of von economo neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia. Anat. Rec. 300, 2017–2024. doi: 10.1002/ar.23635

Von Economo neurons: A Review of the Anatomy and Function

Von Economo (lethargic) encephalitis. Wilson disease. Psychiatric conditions. People with catatonia apparently are at increased risk for death from thromboembolic diseases Economo disease (encephalitis) — Econ·o·mo disease (encephalitis) (a konґo mo) [Constantin von Economo, Austrian neurologist, 1876â€1931] encephalitis lethargica Medical dictionary

Stimpson, C. D., Tetreault, N. A., Allman, J. M., Jacobs, B., Butti, C., Hof, P. R., et al. (2011). Biochemical specificity of von Economo neurons in hominoids. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 23, 22–28. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.21135Butti, C., Sherwood, C. C., Hakeem, A. Y., Allman, J. M., and Hof, P. R. (2009). Total number and volume of Von Economo neurons in the cerebral cortex of cetaceans. J. Comp. Neurol. 515, 243–259. doi: 10.1002/cne.22055Keywords: von Economo neurons, pyramidal cells, fusiform cells, medial prefrontal cortex, frontopolar cortex, interhemispheric asymmetry, human cerebral cortex, area 10

Encephalitis Lethargica: The Sleepy Sickness of the 1920s

Öngür, D., and Price, J. L. (2000). The organization of networks within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex of rats, monkeys and humans. Cereb. Cortex 10, 206–219. doi: 10.1093/cercor/10.3.206 Other types cause diseases that are endemic in certain animal populations. But until less than two decades ago, all known human varieties caused illness so mild that coronavirus research was.. Nie, J., Guo, L., Li, K., Wang, Y., Chen, G., Li, L., et al. (2012). Axonal fiber terminations concentrate on gyri. Cereb. Cortex 22, 2831–2839. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhr361

Information on aquatic and terrestrial animal diseases. OIE-Listed diseases 2020. Overview. Technical disease cards. The World Animal Health Information System Von Economo's neurons (VENs) are large, bipolar or corkscrew-shaped neurons located in layers III and V of the frontoinsular and the anterior cingulate cortices. VENs are reported to be altered in.. Encephalitis lethargica or von Economo disease is an atypical form of encephalitis. Also known as sleepy sickness, it was first described in 1917 by the.. Hakeem, A. Y., Sherwood, C. C., Bonar, C. J., Butti, C., Hof, P. R., and Allman, J. M. (2009). Von Economo neurons in the elephant brain. Anat. Rec. 292, 242–248. doi: 10.1002/ar.20829 SEARCH MENU. Disease State Resources. These guidelines cover diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of thyroid nodular disease but not thyroid cancer management

von Economo disease Tumbl

amyloid and Parkinson. Biochemistry of Alzheimer's disease - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Nimchinsky, E. A., Gilissen, E., Allman, J. M., Perl, D. P., Erwin, J. M., and Hof, P. R. (1999). A neuronal morphologic type unique to humans and great apes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 96, 5268–5273. doi: 10.1073/pnas.96.9.5268 In 2017, an estimated 10.0 million [9.-11.1million] people developed TB disease, approximately 9% were living with HIV. People living with HIV with no TB symptoms need TB preventative therapy.. von Economo's disease (Q1369020). From Wikidata. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Also known as. English. von Economo's disease. atypical form of encephalitis

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  1. Photomicrographs of soma and proximal dendrites of (a) a pyramidal and (b) the VENs stained with the Golgi method [5].
  2. Encephalitis lethargica or von Economo disease is an atypical form of encephalitis. Also known as sleepy sickness (though different from the sleeping sickness transmitted by the tsetse fly)..
  3. Uppal, N., Wicinski, B., Buxbaum, J. D., Heinsen, H., Schmitz, C., and Hof, P. R. (2014). Neuropathology of the anterior midcingulate cortex in young children with autism. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 73, 891–902. doi: 10.1097/NEN.0000000000000108

Histological Observation

Brüne, M., Schöbel, A., Karau, R., Faustmann, P. M., Dermietzel, R., Juckel, G., et al. (2011). Neuroanatomical correlates of suicide in psychosis: the possible role of von Economo neurons. PLoS One 6:e20936. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020936With respect to the area of the neuronal soma, in VENs, the average of this item was 369.29 μm2 (79.55 μm2). In the case of pyramidal cells (see Figure 2E), the average of their somatic area was 257.11 μm2 (79.50 μm2) and that of the fusiform cells of layer VI (see Figure 2F) was 196.01 μm2 (48.57 μm2). On average, VENs were 1.43 times (43.89%) larger than the pyramidal cells of layer Vb (p < 0.05), and 1.88 times (88.70%) larger than the fusiform cells of layer VI (p < 0.05). The soma area of VENs, pyramidal and fusiform neurons did not show significant differences between hemispheres (see Figure 3A). The average area of VENs in the crests was 348.40 μm2 (63.01 μm2) and 417.10 μm2 (93.45 μm2) in the walls, i.e., 19.7% larger in the latter (p < 0.01). The soma area of pyramidal and fusiform cells, between crest and walls of the gyrus, did not present statistically significant differences (see Figure 3B).

von Economo's disease - APA Dictionary of Psycholog

In human medial BA10, data such as the observed small number of VENs and the small differences in the soma area with respect to the pyramidal cells, would suggest that in addition to being a specific cell type, the morphology of VENs might be the product of mechanical forces experienced during the gyrification of cerebral cortex (Van Essen, 1997). This idea could be explored from a histological analysis of different biochemical markers in the infragranular layers, as was performed by Stimpson et al. (2011), and thus it could be established if the VENs of the medial BA10 only have morphological differences with respect to the pyramidal cells of their same layer or if there are other characteristics that distinguish them.We also found that the VEN/pyramidal ratio and the absolute number of VENs were higher in the right hemisphere than in the left counterpart (see Table 2). Observations like these have already been made, both in humans and in other species (Butti et al., 2009; Allman et al., 2011; Evrard et al., 2012). It has been proposed that the greater presence of VENs in the right hemisphere of fronto-insular cortex could be related to the triggering of responses of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (Allman et al., 2011). This functional relationship could also be considered for our findings in the medial frontopolar cortex due to the connections that this cortical region presents with the hypothalamus and the periaqueductal gray matter (Rempel-Clower and Barbas, 1998; Öngür and Price, 2000). However, it would be hasty to make functional conjectures about a cell type so scarce in the studied cortical region.Inside the counting grids, we found 81 von Economo neurons in the right hemisphere and 11 in the left hemisphere. The VEN/pyramidal ratio was 1:92 and 1:318, respectively (see Table 2). The difference in the average number of VENs and in the VEN/pyramidal ratio between hemispheres is statistically significant (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively). These significant differences are preserved by discriminating between the portions of the gyrus (crest and walls) of each hemisphere (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively). The counts of pyramidal cells between hemispheres did not show statistically significant differences (p > 0.05).

Encephalitis lethargica - Wiki Videos - YouTube

Diseases headed by Julius Wagner von Jauregg at Vienna's General Hospital. Neurology and Psychiatry in 1921. During World War I, Economo served at the Russian front and ..Constantin von Economo, that all these varied symptoms were recognized to be manifestations of a New York was especially hard-hit by the disease, and as a result it became the world center for.. Von Willebrand Disease. NORD gratefully acknowledges Ann-Marie Nazzaro, PhD, Executive Director, Foundation for Women & Girls with Blood Disorders; Claire S. Philipp, MD, Professor of Medicine.. Scilit is a centralized platform for all published research literature, articles with a DOI or in PubMed are indexed within hours.. Cauda, F., Torta, D. M. E., Sacco, K., D’Agata, F., Geda, E., Duca, S., et al. (2013). Functional anatomy of cortical areas characterized by Von Economo neurons. Brain Struct. Funct. 218, 1–20. doi: 10.1007/s00429-012-0382-9

Von Economo's disease and postencephalitic parkinsonism

  1. Given the small size of the tissue sample obtained for the present study, there was a lack of data regarding the presence and distribution of VENs in the depth of the sulci. We found that the VEN/pyramidal ratio and the absolute number of VENs were higher in the crest than in the wall of the gyri (see Tables 1, 2). Similar results have been previously reported (Raghanti et al., 2015), so that the evidence obtained in the present study could support the hypothesis that VENs correspond to a morphological variant of pyramidal cells located in the deep layers of the gyri after of the mechanical pressure that is present in the phenomenon of the gyrification (Van Essen, 1997; Pillay and Manger, 2007; Nie et al., 2012).
  2. Oral protein-based nutritional supplement in people with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis
  3. The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in the frontoinsular cortex (FI) and limbic anterior (LA) area in great apes and humans but not in other primates. Stereological counts of VENs in FI and LA show them to be more numerous in humans than in apes. In humans, small numbers of VENs appear the 36th week postconception, with numbers increasing during the first 8 months after birth. There are significantly more VENs in the right hemisphere in postnatal brains; this may be related to asymmetries in the autonomic nervous system. VENs are also present in elephants and whales and may be a specialization related to very large brain size. The large size and simple dendritic structure of these projection neurons suggest that they rapidly send basic information from FI and LA to other parts of the brain, while slower neighboring pyramids send more detailed information. Selective destruction of VENs in early stages of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) implies that they are involved in empathy, social awareness, and self-control in which VENs fail to develop normally in autism broad spectrum disorders which may be responsible for the associated social disabilities resulting from faulty intuition.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis. Section Navigation. Close. London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research. Health Economics Group «Presumed cases of von Economo's disease parkinsonism have been reported in small numbers since 1970. The clinical and, when available, the pathological data are fairly convincing According to previous reports, the VEN/pyramidal proportion vary from one cortical region to another ranging from 0.5% to 13% (Nimchinsky et al., 1999; Fajardo et al., 2008; Raghanti et al., 2015). In the present study, the absolute number of VENs and the VEN/pyramidal cell ratio was considerably lower than in those studies. Although we found VENs in both hemispheres of all the subjects, their presence was not continuous throughout the entire sublayer Vb or from one tissue section to another. It is important to consider that this data corresponds to the quantification made deliberately in the sectors where VENs were found, so that this value could be even lower if the total extension of sublayer Vb of the medial BA10 had been analyzed. To overcome this limitation, future work should consider the acquisition of a greater number of tissue sections. Moreover, having a representative sample of the entire cortical area under study will make it possible to apply stereological methods for volumetric analysis. More studies of medial BA10 are also required, both with neurotypical and with pathological populations to look for explanations regarding the atypical data on the number of VENs found in the present study.Figure 2. Microphotographs of VENs, pyramidal and fusiform cells in the human medial frontopolar cortex. (A–C) Correspond to photographs taken at different magnifications of the same sector of one of the walls of a gyrus. (D–F) are high-magnification photographs (40×) of a VENs and a pyramidal cell of sublayer Vb, and of a fusiform cell of layer VI. (A) Portion of a tissue section where VENs were found in the wall of a gyrus. The red box shows the sector located between layers IV and VI which will be enlarged on image (B). Magnification 2.5×, scale bar = 500 μm. (B) Microphotograph illustrating a magnification of the red box of image (A). Magnification 10×, scale bar = 100 μm. (C) Microphotograph illustrating a magnification of the red box in image (B). The red arrows indicate two NeuN-positive cells with the typical morphology of VENs identified in sublayer Vb of the medial frontopolar cortex of humans. Magnification 40×, scale bar = 50 μm. (D) Photomicrograph illustrating a VEN of sublayer Vb indicated by the red arrow. (E) Microphotograph illustrating a pyramidal cell of sublayer Vb indicated by the red arrow. (F) Microphotograph illustrating a fusiform cell of layer VI indicated by the red arrow. Scale bar = 50 μm for images (D–F).

All of the primates had more spindle cells in the fronto-insula of the right hemisphere than in the left. In contrast to the higher number of spindle cells found in the ACC of the gracile bonobos and chimpanzees, the number of fronto-insular spindle cells was far higher in the cortex of robust gorillas but no data for Orangutans was given [1,2]. An adult human had 82,855 such cells, a gorilla had 16,710, a bonobo had 2,159, and a chimpanzee had a mere 1,808 – despite the fact that chimpanzees and bonobos are great apes most closely related to humans [19,20].Blanc, F., Colloby, S. J., Cretin, B., de Sousa, P. L., Demuynck, C., O’Brien, J. T., et al. (2016). Grey matter atrophy in prodromal stage of dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Res. Ther. 8:31. doi: 10.1186/s13195-016-0198-6Aimaretti, G., Ambrosio, M. R., Di Somma, C., Fusco, A., Cannavò, S., Gasperi, M., et al. (2004). Traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage are conditions at high risk for hypopituitarism: screening study at 3 months after the brain injury. Clin. Endocrinol. 61, 320–326. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2004.02094.x These cells, called von Economo neurons, are far more abundant in humans than in apes and may (2005) Intuition and autism: a possible role for Von Economo neurons. Trends Cogn Sci 9:367-373 Where did von Economo identify spindle neurons to be located? A behavioral disorder characterized by early decline in social and personal conduct, emotional blunting, and loss of insight

Frontiers Von Economo Neurons in the Frontiers in Neuroanatom

Login using your Elsevier credentials From the case: Encephalitis lethargica (von Economo disease). K. von Economo. Encepahlitis lethargica. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, May 10, 1917, 30: 581-585 On the other hand, the connections of the medial BA10 with other cortical regions in which the presence of VENs has been reported have been associated with processes such as intuitive assessment and generation of rapid responses in social contexts (Baron-Cohen et al., 1999; Butti et al., 2013; Cauda et al., 2013). These functions are affected in pathologies such as autism, schizophrenia and frontotemporal dementia, in which these cells appear to be selectively vulnerable (Allman et al., 2005; Krause et al., 2017; Yang et al., 2017; Gefen et al., 2018). According to the cortical organization pattern of the frontal pole on the medial surface, this region would send projections from the infragranular layers to the supragranular layers of other cortical sectors that have higher levels of hierarchical organization such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Barbas and Rempel-Clower, 1997). Although it is possible to assume that the axons of VENs share this same pattern of cortico-cortical connections of the pyramidal neurons of sublayer Vb, given the scarce presence of them it is difficult to assign them a specific functional role related to the mental functions attributed to the medial BA10, such as prospective memory, attention control, theory of mind and metacognition (Gusnard et al., 2001; Burgess et al., 2007a,b). KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) Acute Kidney Injury..

Von Economo's disease World Problems & Global Issue

  1. Von Economo neurons (VENs) are bipolar neurons found in the anterior cingulate, frontoinsular, and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortices of great apes which include humans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans [1,2]. These neurons, also called Spindle neurons are characterized by a large spindle-shaped cell body or soma with a tapering single apical axon in one direction. Whereas other types of neurons tend to have many dendrites, the polar shaped morphology of spindle neurons is unique [3,4]. These group of neurons were previously thought to be unique to the great apes but have more recently been found in cetaceans such as the humpback, fin, killer and sperm whales [5,6,7]. Because of their morphology and anatomical location, it has been speculated that VENs may play important role in intuitive choice in social situations and that their dysfunction may be a factor in autism and Alzheimer’s disease [8,9]. VENs were first described by Constantin Von Economo in 1925, and their exclusivity to the great apes was discovered in 1999 by Allman and colleagues [1,10].
  2. and then fixed by immersion. The samples were taken from the polar portion of BA10, on the medial surface of the two hemispheres, according to the cytoarchitectonic map of (Öngür et al., 2003; Buriticá and Pimienta, 2007; see Figure 1A; red box). The tissue was fixed in 4% buffered paraformaldehyde-lysine-sodium periodate, kept at a pH of 7.4 and 4°C for 7-to-10-days.
  3. Encephalitis lethargica (EL) or von Economo disease is an atypical form of encephalitis. First described by the neurologist Constantin von Economo (1876-1931) in 1916, EL attacks the brain..
  4. Copyright © 2018 González-Acosta, Escobar, Casanova, Pimienta and Buriticá. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

Economo's disease - PubMed - NCB

Constantin Freiherr von Economo (21 August 1876 - 21 October 1931) was an Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist of Romanian origin and Greek descent. He is mostly known for his discovery of.. In Alzheimer's disease, von Economo neurons were not significantly depleted. As FTD is a disease for which there is as yet no disease-modifying therapy, studies of von Economo neurons could.. VENs have a cylindrical and elongated soma, forming a symmetrical basal and apical dendritic tree, whose branching is quite narrow as compared to adjacent pyramidal cells (Watson et al., 2006). The density of VENs in humans varies with the brain regions (Fajardo et al., 2008; Allman et al., 2011; Raghanti et al., 2015). According to volumetric analyses, it seems that they can be several times bigger than pyramidal neurons of the same cortical layer (Nimchinsky et al., 1999). Several studies have described a selective vulnerability of VENs in pathological conditions such as autism, schizophrenia, suicidal behavior and frontotemporal dementia (Allman et al., 2005; Brüne et al., 2011; Santillo et al., 2013; Uppal et al., 2014; Blanc et al., 2016; Krause et al., 2017; Yang et al., 2017; Gefen et al., 2018).

History&#39;s Mysteries: Diabolical Diseases - InfoBarrel

Vaccines and targeted therapeutics for treatment of this disease are currently lacking. Here we report a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 (and SARS-CoV) Ob jemand von einer COVID-19-Erkrankung genesen beziehungsweise frei vom Coronavirus Von folgenden Landesbehörden erhalten wir zusätzlich regelmäßig Fallzahlen oder fragen diese a Primate cladogram detailing the species examined for VENs. Species in red have VENs in the FI. Pongids have VENs in the ACC only [1].Rempel-Clower, N. L., and Barbas, H. (1998). Topographic organization of connections between the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex in the rhesus monkey. J. Comp. Neurol. 398, 393–419. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1096-9861(19980831)398:3<393::aid-cne7>3.0.co;2-v

On 1 August 2018, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo declared a new outbreak of Ebola virus disease in North Kivu Province. The Ministry of Health, WHO and partners are.. Anatomy Biomarkers Cardiology Diseases Endocrinology Gastroenterology Health care Health occupations Medical research Molecular medicine Nephrology Neurology Oncology Pathogenesis.. Von Economo's disease information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues Translate English Arabic Von Economo's disease. Medicine Economy. English. Arabic. Von Economo's disease {lethargic encephalitis} {med. Von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons found in the anterior cingulate, frontoinsular and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortices of great apes and the humans

Video: Von Economo's Disease - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatments

Von Economo's disease - RightDiagnosis

Baron-Cohen, S., Baron-Cohen, S., Ring, H. A., Ring, H. A., Wheelright, S., Wheelright, S., et al. (1999). Social intelligence in the normal and autisitic brain: an fMRI study. Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 1891–1898. doi: 10.1046/j.1460-9568.1999.00621.xThis is the first report of VENs on the medial surface of the frontopolar cortex in humans. We had previously made a search for these cells in the frontal pole, specifically on the lateral surface, with negative results (Fajardo et al., 2008). In the present study we carried out the search of VENs specifically on the medial surface of BA10. Its location in this region was also observed in sublayer Vb, as has been reported predominantly in the literature (Nimchinsky et al., 1995; Watson et al., 2006; Fajardo et al., 2008; Allman et al., 2011). In general, the morphological characteristics (shape of the soma, number and shape of its proximal processes, laminar location) of the VENs found in the present study are similar to those previously described in other human cortical regions (frontoinsular cortex, anterior cingulate region and dorsomedial BA9); however, the quantity and soma area vary.

neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson disease (PD). H1N1 pandemic, the etiologic association of influenza with EL is controversial and von Economo and other contemporary scientists thought that it.. In Table 1, data are expressed as the average (SE) of the quantification of VENs and pyramidal cells of each subject in the tissue sections where VENs were found. In Table 2 data are expressed as the average (SD) of the quantification of VENs and pyramidal cells of each hemisphere in the tissue sections where VENs were found. The VEN/pyramidal ratio will be shown by the expression A:B, where A corresponds to the number of VENs and B corresponds to the number of pyramidal cells found for each VEN. The neuronal soma area will be expressed in μm2, showing the average value (SD). The analysis of the data was performed with the GraphPad 5.0 software. Data were analyzed considering statistically significant differences with a minimum significance level of p < 0.05. The VEN/pyramidal ratio between crests and walls of the gyri was compared using a student’s t-test. The VEN/pyramidal ratio between hemispheres was compared using a student’s t-test. The soma area of VENs with respect to pyramidal and fusiform cells was analyzed using one-way ANOVA; and the soma area of the three types of neurons between crest and walls of the gyrus was analyzed using two-way ANOVA. For both cases, comparisons were made intra- and inter-hemispherically.The FI and ACC, where VENs are located, are thought to be implicated in social reasoning, empathy, emotion, and monitoring of visceral autonomic activity, among other functions. ACC projects to the fronto-polar cortex, which has been implicated in cognitive dissonance and uncertainty [16]. Because their morphology suggests them as fast-projection neurons, and because of the functions of the areas they are thought to receive information from and project information to, it is speculated that VENs have an important role to play in intuition, which allows one to overcome uncertainty, make quick decisions and resolve cognitive dissonance [2]. Allman and Colleagues had reported that spindle neurons help channel neural signals from deep within the cortex to relatively distant parts of the brain [1]. They found that signals from the ACC are received in Brodmann’s area 10, in the frontal polar cortex, where regulation of cognitive dissonance, disambiguation between alternatives is thought to occur. According to Allman and Others [1,2], this neural relay appears to convey motivation to act, and concerns the recognition of error. Self-control and avoidance of error, is thus facilitated by the executive gate-keeping function of the ACC, as it regulates the interference patterns of neural signals between these two brain regions.

Wortherkunft von Economo's disease

von Economo's disease - Wikidat

  1. Register your specific details and specific drugs of interest and we will match the information you provide to articles from our extensive database and email PDF copies to you promptly.
  2. von Economo C . Encephalitis lethargica. Its sequelae and treatment (translated by Newman KO). London: Oxford University Press, 1931
  3. dict.cc | Übersetzungen für 'von Economo disease' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen von Economo disease in anderen Sprachen: Deutsch - Englisch
  4. We thank the Universidad del Valle for funding this research through project 143 of the Bolsa Concursable of 2017.
  5. al features and his name is associated with the disease

The EULAR guidance for patients and an array of useful resources about the current COVID-19 outbreak to give our patients with Rheumatic Musculoskeletal Diseases (RMDs) the best possible care Although up to 21 VENs were found in a counting grid (from subject 1), these neurons were scattered and did not form clusters. The total number of pyramidal cells quantified in the counting grids where VENs were found was 10971. The VEN/pyramidal ratio considering the totals of each neuronal type was 1:119, that is, VENs corresponded to 0.84% of the pyramidal cells of sublayer Vb on the medial surface of the human frontopolar cortex only in those sectors where VENs were found (see Tables Table 2). VENs were always more abundant in the crests than in the walls of the gyri (see Tables 1, 2). Furthermore, we found 66 VENs on the crests and 26 on the walls in all the analyzed tissue sections (see Table 2), resulting in a VEN/pyramidal ratio that ranged between 1:39 and 1:236 on the crests, and between 1:74 and 1:447 on the walls (see Table 1). There were no statistically significant differences in the number of pyramidal cells between the crests and the walls of the gyri (p > 0.05). However, the VEN/pyramidal ratio differed statistically between crest and wall of the gyrus (p < 0.05).

A Delve into Encephalitis Lethargica, the Sleeping

We obtained postmortem tissue samples from five subjects from the National Institute of Forensic Medicine and Forensic Sciences (NIFMFS) in Bogotá, Colombia. The subjects (four male and one female) had ages ranging between 20 and 41 years old (mean of 25.8 years old), a postmortem interval that ranged between 8 h and 14 h (mean of 9.8 h) and the causes of death were: wound by firearm in the thorax (three cases) and wound by firearm in the spinal cord (two cases). None of them had antecedents of neurological or psychiatric diseases, brain injury or edema in the medical-forensic report. The procedures of this study were approved by the ethics committees for human research of the Faculty of Health of the Universidad del Valle and the NIFMFS, in accordance with the Helsinki protocol.You are using an outdated browser. This page doesn't support Internet Explorer 6, 7 and 8.Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience.

Von Economo's Disease (Encephalitis Lethargica) SpringerLin

  1. Economo's disease is more popularly known as encephalitis lethargica, sleeping sickness, or sleepy sickness. This was first described by Constantin Freiherr von Economo, an Austrian psychiatrist..
  2. istration of levodopa and carbidopa. This case would support the hypothesis that this syndrome effects dopa
  3. The disease is rapidly spreading worldwide and the number of cases in Europe is rising with Rapid Risk Assessment: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the EU/EEA and the UK- ninth update

Underlying conditions, including heart disease, lung disease, and diabetes, increase risk even further in those who are older. In addition, anyone with an underlying medical condition, regardless of their.. Africa CDC strengthens the capacity and capability of Africa's public health institutions as well as partnerships to detect and respond quickly and effectively to disease threats and outbreaks, based on.. No. It was once thought that spermicides with nonoxynol-9 could help prevent STIs much like they help prevent pregnancy — by damaging the organisms that cause the diseases. New research has shown..

Video: Economo Psychology Wiki Fando

..(von Economo's disease [EL]), with PEP developing immediately after the acute phase of EL or EL was classically described by von Economo and has somnolent-ophthalmoplegic, hyperkinetic.. Pillay, P., and Manger, P. R. (2007). Order-specific quantitative patterns of cortical gyrification. Eur. J. Neurosci. 25, 2705–2712. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05524.x Von Economo's Disease: Read more about symptoms, causes, diagnosis, tests, types, drugs, treatments, prevention, and more information In the human medial frontopolar cortex, the soma area of VENs is larger than that of pyramidal cells of layer Vb, and that of fusiform neurons of layer VI. However, the difference in soma area between VENs and pyramidal cells found in the medial BA10 is less significant than the difference reported in other human cortical regions (Nimchinsky et al., 1999; Fajardo et al., 2008). In our study we found that the soma of VENs in the walls is larger than in the crest of the gyri. This is a novel finding because there are no previous reports in the literature that compare the soma area of the VENs between the crest and the wall of a gyrus. If the soma of VENs is reduced in some cortical areas such as the medial frontopolar cortex and is almost the same to that of the pyramidal cells of layer V, perhaps this morphological peculiarity manages to hide them in cortical regions where they have not been found and to explain their circumscribed location in humans. Von Economo's disease and postencephalitic parkinsonism responsive to carbidopa and levodopa

Pronunciation of von economo disease found 3 audio voices for von economo disease. von economo disease meaning not found If you know the Meaning of this word, share it Fischer, D., Boes, A., Demertzi, A., Evrard, H., Laureys, S., Edlow, B., et al. (2016). A human brain network based on coma-causing brainstem lesions. Neurology 87, 2427–2434. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003404Figure 3. Comparison of the soma area of VENs, pyramidal and fusiform cells. (A) Neuronal size per hemisphere. There were no statistically significant inter-hemispheric differences in the area of VENs, pyramidal and fusiform cells. The area of the soma of VENs is greater with respect to that of pyramidal and fusiform cells (*p < 0.05). (B) Neuronal area per gyrus portion. There are differences in the area of VENs according to their regional location, being greater in the walls than in the crests of the gyri (**p < 0.01). VENs were larger when compared to pyramidal and fusiform cells, in both portions of the gyri (***p < 0.001). In the latter, there were no differences related to their location along a gyrus.

Austin Publishing Group is an emerging open access publisher specialising in Science, Technology and Medicine is dedicated to serve the biomedical community through its initiatives. Austin Publishing Group is an academic publisher with 100+ peer reviewed open access journals in various subjects such as biomedical, Pharma, Life Sciences, Environmental, Engineering and Management. Austin Publishing Group publishes Open Access eBooks providing free access to vast scientific literature. Published 4 April 2018 Volume 2018:14 Pages 927—931 Endocrine system diseases primarily arise from two causes - either a change in the level of hormone secreted by a gland, or a change in the sensitivity of the receptors in various cells of the body The attack rate or transmissibility (how rapidly the disease spreads) of a virus is indicated by its reproductive number (Ro, pronounced R-nought or r-zero), which represents the average number of.. Gefen, T., Papastefan, S. T., Rezvanian, A., Bigio, E. H., Weintraub, S., Rogalski, E., et al. (2018). Von Economo neurons of the anterior cingulate across the lifespan and in Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex 99, 69–77. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2017.10.015

Within these grids we also chose pyramidal neurons whose soma area was measured to compare with the VENs soma area. The fusiform cells of layer VI whose soma area was compared with pyramidal cells and VENs were located just below the grids. This procedure was performed for neurons that were overlap-free and had no defects that could have affected their measurement. The neuronal soma area was determined by delineating the perimeter of the soma in microphotographs of magnification 40× properly calibrated, and the software gave us the measurement of the bi-dimensional area of the soma in μm2. We wanted to determine the soma area of all the VENs found, and of 10 pyramidal and three fusiform cells for each VEN; however, we could not determine the soma area of all the expected neurons because some of them were overlapped with another neuron which prevented us to clearly see the boundaries between one neuron and another. In total, we established the soma area of 69 VENs, 570 pyramidal and 176 fusiform cells. These counts and measurements were made with the assistance of the Sigma Scan Pro five program (SPSS Science 2000®).Burgess, P. W., Gilbert, S. J., and Dumontheil, I. (2007b). Function and localization within rostral prefrontal cortex (area 10). Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 362, 887–899. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2095

Encephalitis lethargica or von Economo disease is an atypical form of encephalitis. Also known as sleepy sickness (distinct from tsetse fly-transmitted sleeping sickness), it was first described in 1917 by the neurologist Constantin von Economo and the pathologist Jean-René Cruchet Another disorder, hypothyroidism, a parathyroid disease, occurs when the Parathyroid disease is a curable cause of kidney stones, said Dr. Melanie Goldfarb, an endocrine surgeon and director of the..

A common health problem, lung diseases range from mild to severe. WebMD breaks down the information and describes the types and causes of some common lung diseases Initially, some studies suggested that humans had the highest density of VENs compared to other non-human primates and other mammals such as cetaceans and elephants (Nimchinsky et al., 1999; Butti et al., 2009; Hakeem et al., 2009). However, a comprehensive analysis that included a wide range of non-primate species refuted this idea. That same study determined that the restricted distribution of VENs is not an exclusive phenomenon of our species (Raghanti et al., 2015).

The A-Z of diseases is a directory of diseases that affect Nigerians. We have arranged them by Dr. Chikwe Ihekweazu has been Director General of the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control since the.. References in the ICD-10-CM Index to Diseases and Injuries applicable to the clinical term von economo-cruchet Von Economo-Cruchet disease - A85.8 Other specified viral encephalitis Translation of von Economos disease in French. Dr. Constantin von Economo was the first to identify it. Le Dr. Constantin von Economo a été le premier à l'identifier We found 5 dictionaries with English definitions that include the word von economo's disease: Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where von economo's disease is defined Considering that our results and those reported in the frontal region of the insula, the anterior cingulate cortex and dorsomedial BA9, it is possible to suggest that in humans, VENs decrease in the postero-anterior and ventro-dorsal direction, as in that they approach the frontal pole or the dorsomedial convexity of the frontal lobe. Of course, this interpretation needs to be validated in the light of more evidence, for example, by exploring other cortical regions of the medial frontal lobe such as BA25 and BA32.

Due to the unfolding COVID-19 pandemic and the safety concerns surrounding mass gatherings, the organizers of the 19th International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID) have made the difficult.. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, fork cell, frontoinsula, von 2009. Total number and volume of von Economo neurons in the cerebral cortex of cetaceans

Encephalitis lethargica: could this disease be recognised

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. von Economo's disease see encephalitis lethargica. [Constantin von Economo (1876-1931), Austrian neurologist] VENs are large, bipolar neurons with one large apical axon and a single basal dendrite. They are found exclusively in layer Vb of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and fronto-insular cortex (FI) as shown in Figures 1 and 2, and have been identified in human dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), Brodmann area [3,18]. Its large apical axon and high-volume, elongated soma is similar to that of the cortical pyramidal neuron, but the VEN lacks the pyramidal neuron’s numerous basal dendrites, instead receiving inputs from a comparatively small subset of cortex; the average VEN is about 5 times larger than the average layer 5 pyramidal cells as shown in Figures 3 and 5 [5,8]. Their structural similarity to pyramidal neurons suggests that VENs may play a similar functional role, and because the speed at which neurons conduct information typically co-varies with the diameter of their axon, the large VENs may do so very quickly compared to other neurons as in Figure 3 [2,7]. VENs are relatively rare, comprising 1-2% of the total neurons in layer 5 of the ACC [4,19]. In FI, VENs are 30% more numerous in the right hemisphere than the left a hempispherization that occurs in the first four years of postnatal development in humans [2,11].

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